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Bulletin 45. 





Dr. John A. Myers. 

Let your family and neighbors read this r Bulletin. " No 
scientific matter in it. 

DEGEMBER, 1896- 


"I hain't seen nuffln of yer Chickens! D» 
yer see any Chickens 'bout me? Go 'ivaij 
dar, whito c:ir::i! Treat a boy 'spectable if 
ho an t.-ac.'j/" 


:Na,meof;Regent. P. O. Address. 

^S.F. REED, Clarksburg. 

iEDGAR P. RUCKER, . . . . Welch. 

W.E. HAYMOND Sutton. 


JASH. STEWART, . . . . Raymond City. 

JAS. F. BROWN, . . . . ■ . Charleston. 

JOHN A. ROBINSON, .... Patterson's Depot. 

C.L.SMITH Fairmont. 

GEO. F. EVANS Martinsburg. 




President Board of Regents, 
President University, 
Treasurer, . 
Auditing Officer, 



A. R. WH1TEHILL, Ph. D. 



A. D. HOPKINS, Ph. D. 
W. E. RUMSEY. B. S. Agr. 
T. F. WATSON, B. S., 




Agriculturist and Horticulturist. 

Assistant Entomologist. 

Assistant Chemist. 

Assistant Agriculturist. 




The object in presenting this Bulletin is to stimulate an in- 
terest in the Poultry industry in this State, and to afford con- 
venient information for farmers who have not had access to 
poultry literature. The information is compiled from a variety 
of sources, which are familiar to those who have been devoting 
special attention to the poultry industry. 

Nothing of a strictly scientific nature will be found in this 
Bulletin. We have endeavored to present everything in the 
simplest possible language, and we ask the farmers who may 
receive it to call the attention of their families to it so that they 
may all become acquainted with the facts contained therein. 
We shall endeavor to reach over 30,000 homes in our State with 
this Bulletin, and trust that our farmer friends may read it care- 
fully and profit by any information contained therein. 

Space precludes our treating of any branches of the poultry 
industry except chickens. If experience should indicate that 
good will result from similar Bulletins upon other branches of 
the poultry industry, the^v will be issued from time to time. 

We are devoting a large share of the energies of our Experi- 
ment Station to the investigation of poultry problems, and in 
future shall have data based upon our experimental work, 
which will be submitted in regular form. 

If any one is disposed to look lightlj' upon the poultry in- 
dustry of the country, he should be reminded that according 
to carefully gathered statistics, this industry appears to repre- 
sent more wealth in the country than the cotton crop, the wheat 
•crop, or almost any of the ordinary farm crops which have been 
prized so highly as sources of wealth and prosperity in this 
-country. It is emiuently adapted to West Virginia. 

Morgantown, W. Va., Dec. 6th, 1897. 


Judging Poultry. 

Terms and Definitions. 

Application of Terms and Judging of Fowls. 

Form of Score Card A. 

Form of Score Card B. 

Table of Cuts in Judging Fowls. 

Table of Disqualifying Weights of Fowls. 

Table of Standard Weights of Fowls. 

Description of Breeds. 

1st, Class. 

2d Class. 

3d Class. 

4th Class. 

5th Class. 

6th Class. 

7th Class. 

8th Class. 

9th Class. 
10; h Class. 
Barred Plymouth Rocks. 
-White Plymouth Rocks. 
Buff Plymouth Rocks. 
Silver Laced Wyandottes. 
White Wyandottes. 
Golden Wyandottes. 
Rhode Island Reds. 
Black American Wonders. 
Black Javas. 
Light Brahmis. 


Partridge Cochins. 

Black Langshans. 

Single Comb Brown Leghorns. 

Single Comb White Leghorns. 

Bine Andalusians. 

Black Minorcas. N 

Single Comb White Minorcas. 

Silver Spangled Hambnrgs. 



Silver Gray Dorkings. 

Cornish Indian Games. 

Black Breasted Red Games. 

Golden Sea bright Bantams. 


Feeding Chickens. 

Care of Young Chicks. 

Feeding in a Nutshell. 

Marketing Poultry. 

Shipping Eggs. 

Price of Eggs. 

Price of Thorough-bred Eggs. 

Percentage of Eggs that will Hatch. 

Chicken Lice. 

Mites and Ticks. 

Chic! ea C o'era 

Roup or Diphtheria. 

Remedies for Roup. 

Poultry .Journals. 

List of American Poultry Journals. 

Necessary Capital to Engage in the Poultry Business. 

Poultry Buildings. 


Persons wishing to learn the art of judging; poultry, should 
secure a copy of the '"Standard," issued by the American 
Poultry Association, published by the American P. Asso- 
ciation, which is modified from time to time by the Association,, 
to indicate the changes in the different breeds which may have 
attained sufficient permanent characteristics to justify their be- 
ing recognized as permanent breeds. In. conjunction with this,, 
we commend most heartily to the consideration of poultry 
raisers a little work entitled, "The Philosophy of Judging," 
edited by Felch, Babcock & Lee; and published by W. D. Page r 
Fort Wayne, Indiana. With these two works, it is possible for 
persons interested in poultry, in a short time to learn the best 
methods of judging poultry. For persons who wish to begin,, 
we suggest that they study the following scale which is taken 
from the "Philosophy of Judging." Each of the main heads 
counts 10; and a perfect fowl would be scored by this scale,. 
100. For the sake of convenience, each of the main heads are 
divided in two parts ; one "Form" and the other "Color" except 
for "Weight" and "Condition." Each of these is scored 5. The 
1 oundation of the system is, that if every part of a fowl is per- 
fect, the fowl itself is perfect. The person judging the fowl 
runs over it in detail, and if there are any defects in any of the 
parts indicated, a proper deduction which is indicated in the 
table of cuts given below for these defects, is made, and the 
sum of the cuts deducted from ldO leaves the proper score of 
the bird. For example, a bird scoring 90 is defective, or falls 
below the standard of that bird 10%. An examination of the 
score card will show where these defects exist. Perhaps its 
neck was slightly too long; its wings set a little too low; its 


its breast too flat; its back too narrow ; its color somewhat de- 
fective ; its comb a little crooked, etc. 

A successful breeder of fine poultry should be a good judge 
of poultry in order to select the proper stock for breeding pur- 
poses and properly mate them. 

Terms and Definitions. 

Barring — The stripes across a feather extending from side to- 
side as in the barred Plymouth Rock. 

Breed — A race of fowls having common characteristics. It 
may include several varieties, but is less comprehensive than* 
a "Class of Fowls." 

Beard — A bunch of feathers under the throat, as in the Hou- 
dans and Polish. 

Broody — Having an inclination to sit. 

Carunculated — Fleshy protuberances, as on the neck of a 
turkey cock. 

Carriage — The upright attitude of a fowl. 

Clutch — The eggs set under a hen, duck, or turkey. 

Cockerel — A youngmck, not a year old. 

Crest — Top-knot of feathers, as on heads of Polish. 

Cut — The deduction made for defects in certain parts of the 

Crop — The first stomach of a fcwl, where the food is pre- 
pared for digestion. 

Cape — The feathers extending around just under the hackle, 
which presents the appearance of a cape, from which it takes 
its name. 

Cushion — The mass of feathers over the rump of the hen, 
which more or less covers the tail; prominent in some of the 
Asiatic breeds. 

Class of Fowls — This embraces a number of breeds possess- 
ing some general characteristics, such as ihe Bantam class, 
under which there are several breeds. 

Dubbing — Shearing of the wattles, ear lobes and comb, close 
to the head so as to leave it smooth. 


Decimal Scale — A convenient scale for determining the de- 
gree of perfection of the chicken. 

Disqualifications — The term used in the '"American Standard 
of Perfection 1 '' to indicate those defects in a fowl which will 
prevent it from being classed with any particular breed. A 
disqualified bird cannot be exhibited in competition with other 
birds of a particular breed. 

Ear-lobe — Fold of skin hanging from the ear. 

Face — The bare-skin from top of bill around the eyes. 

Flight- Feathers -The primary wing feathers, used in flying. 

Fluffs — Downy feathers around the thighs. 

Fertile — Producing eggs that will hatch. 

Hackles — The narrow lance like feathers on a fowl's neck 
and the posterior of the back. 

Hen- Feathered, or Henny — A cock without long, sickle 
shaped tail leathers. Tail like a hen's. 

Hock — Elbow joint of the leg. The scaly part of the leg. 

High-Flyer — A chicken of easy flight, difficult to retain within 

Keel — The breast bone. 

Leg — The shank ironi elbow down. 

Leg-Feathered — Having feathers growing on outside of 
shank, same as Brahmas and Cochins. 

Leaf-Comb — The form of comb seen in some of the crest 
varieties; a V-shaped comb. 

Mossy — Uncertain markings. 

Pea-Comb — A snug triple comb. 

Penciling — Small stripes running over a feather, usually 
length-wise of the feather, and sometimes taking the general 
outline of the feather. 

L^oult — A young turkey. 

Profile — The halt of the chicken that is visible when standing 
on a level with the eyes. 

Primaries — These are the long feathers of the wings not usu- 
ally seen when the wing is closed, being concealed under the 
secondary leal hers until the wing is spread for flight. Usually 


the primaries are of similar color to the tail feathers ; breeders 
attach importance to their color. 

Pullet — A female, under one year old. 

Prolific — Producing a large number of eggs. 

Rose Comb — A comb which has the upper surface more or 
leas wavy or covered with small points. This may be seen in 
the Hamburgs, Rose-Comb, Leghorns, and the Wyandottes. 

Saddle— The posterior of the back. The feathers of it are 
called saddle feathers or saddle hackle. 

Score-Card— The certificate of character for the chicken. Its 
degree of perfection as estimated by a competent judge. 

Secondaries — The portions of the wing which are visible when 
the bird is standing at rest. The quill feathers near the base of 
the wing. 

Self- Color — Solid colpr, as black, or white. 

Sickles — The upward curving feathers of a cock's tail. 

Spangled— Spots on the feather of different color from the 
ground color of the feather. 

Scale of Points— T he values attached to. the different parts 
and qualities of a chicken, in judging or grading it. A perfect 
chicken is valued at 100 points. 

Symmetry — The perfection and harmony of all parts of a 
fowl, considered as a unit. A perfectly symmetrical bird would 
be an ideal bird of any variety, that would score 100. 

Strain — A particular race of fowls having an individual char- 
acter of its own developed by a breeder carefully selecting and 
mating his fowls. A division of a variety. 

Single-Comb — A single, fleshy, serrated mass, varying in size 
and depth of serration, rising from near the base of the beak 
and extending back some distance on the head. In females, it 
frequently hangs over on the side of the head, as. in the case of 
the Single-Comb L°ghorns. 

Squirrel- Tailed— A tail bending forward over the b tck, in 
front of a perpendicular line erected from the roots of the tail. 
Stag — A game cockerel. A young game cock. 


Station — A term used to embody style and symmetry in game 

Surface- Color — The color of the plumage limited to the 
webbed part of the feather. 

r Iwisted-Comb — A comb which has two opposite curves when 
viewed from the top. 

Vulture- Hock — Stiff feathers growing out of the thighs, and 
extending nearly straight back in rear of hock. 

Variety — Fowls which possess common characteristics. Nar- 
rower in the application lhan kt breed." 

Wattles — The red, fleshy excrescences under the throat, as of 
a cock or turkey. 

Winy-Bar— A dark line across the middle of the wing. 

Winy- Coverts— Feathers covering the roots of the secondary 

Web — This is applied to the flat skin between the toes* to the 
triangular skin shown when wings are extended, and to the 
plume portions of the feathers. 

Winy-Bay— The triangular section of the wing below tha 
wing bar ; and is due to the exposed portions of the secondaries 
when the wing is folded. 

Winy Bow — The shoulder part of the wing. 

Winy- Fronts — This is the portion of the wing that stands out 
at the shoulder; generally seen prominently in the Indian 
Games. The front edge of the wing. 




Cut showing application of terms in judging a fowl. 



Form of Ssore Card. 
Different judges score according to slightly different systems. 
A very simple form of score card is "A," the form we generally 
use at the Experiment Station, which is as follows : 



..... No.. 

Weight and Condition 




Comb and Crest 

. . . Color 

Heads and Adjuncts 



Form ... 

Form .... ... 

. . . Color 

. . Color . 

Back .... 


. . . Color 

Body . . ... 



Tail .... 
Legs and Feet . 
Total Cuts . .. 





Anoiher form is k, B." which is as follows : 
West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Morgantown, W. Va. 

Date Ring 

Entry Weight 

St\ Breed 

Name and address of Exhibitor 







Wattles and Ear-Lobes 





Body and Fluff 




Legs and Feet . 

Crest and Beard . ... 


Hardness of Feathers (in games) 

Total Cuts 

Score . 


... Judge. 

*We think this should be omitted, as it causes a double cut if the bird 
has been properly scored. 


Cuts for Condition. 
For Light Brahma, taken from the Philosophy of Judging. 
Modify to suit the Breed of Chickens. 

Too fatjor too lean £ to 2 

Weeping eye 1 

Distem per 1 

Houghness of shank -| to 3 

TJncleanliness ..................................... ■ \ to 2 

Cuts for Form. 


Crooked middle section 1 

All three sections crooked 1^ to 3 

Too large \ to 1£ 


Narrowness of skull \ to 1 

Yery small wattles ....-.*'. 2 

Yery large wattles . £ to 1 

Lack of throat in hen 1 


JLoo long . . . . £ 

'Too short -£ 

'Too straight 1 

Scanty hackle,' causing slim neck...... i to 1 

Too long and flowing hackle £ 


Too straight or roached % to 1^ 

Narrow in front of tail i to 1 

Convex saddle i to 1 


Flatness ...... °. I to 2 

Xack of forward sweep 1 


Flatness of sides and narrowness of fluff £ to 1 


Twisted^feathers 1 to 2 

jnpe.rfect folding \ to \\ 


Carried too high i to 1 

Carried too low A to 1 

Close and pinched 1 to 1£ 

Spread too much | 

St raight sickles 1 


Approach to vulture hock i to 2 

Shanks too short. . ^ 

Shanks too long ^ to 1| 

Knock-kneed i to 3 

Too light leg feathering ^ to 1 

Bare outer toe 1£ 

Bare middle toe 1 

Cuts for Color. 


Want of striping in hackle \ to 2>\ 

Faded color in stripes I to 2 

Smutty lacing \ to 2 

Solid black for two inches from point H 

Faded stripe in hen's hackle \ to 3 

back. . 

•Gray or slaty shading on surface \ to 1 

Black ticks over shell-bone \ 

Black ticks extending across the back to hackle ... Disqualify 

Dark slate spots in back of female ^ to H 

Yellow tinge \ to 1^ 


White in primaries of male \ to 3 

White in upper edge of secondaries (male) \ to 3 

Yellow tinge on coverts 1 to \\ 

Primaries of females, more than one-half white i to 2 

Secondaries of females, more than one-half white \ to 2 


White in sickles two inches from body 1 

White in- sickles above coverlets 1 to H 



White coverts 

White on main tail feathers 

White tips on main tail feathers 

White coverlets on female. t 

White main tail feathers one-third length 

White tips, main tail feathers 

"Cotton tail" 


Pale straw color on hen's shanks . 






to J^ 


to H 


to 2^ 


Disqualifying Weight Limit. Cockerel. 

Dark Brahma 7^ lbs. 

Light Brahma 7-| " 

All Cochins -.7 " 

Langshan 7 

Standard Weight. Cockerel. 

Light Brahma 10 lbs. 

Dark Brahma and All 

Cochins, except* 9 " 

Langshan 8 " 

Cornish Indian Games. 7^ •■■*■'.' 
Javas and all Plymouth 

Rocks 8 " 

All Wyandottes and Am. 

Dominique 7-^ " 

W. Dorking... 6^ " 

S.S.Dorking 7 "' 

Colored Dorkings 8 u 

All Minorcas »$ " 

Red Caps 6 •' 

Jersey Blues 8 " 

Houdan 6 u 

LaFleche 7* " 

Creve Coeur 7 " 

*White Cochin Cock, I0£ lbs. 




9 lbs. 



7 lbs 

9 " 



7* - 

9 " 



7 " 

9 u 



6 " 




12 lbs. 



9i lbs. 

11 " 



8^ » 

10 " 



7 " 

9 " 




n « 

. 6i 


71 n 

' 2 

H " 



6* " 

n kt 



6 ' k 

8 ' k 



6i " 

n « 



7| ". 

8 " 


64 " 

7* " 




10 " 



7 " 

7 " 



6 " 

i. i -t 

r "5 


k - 

7^ " 

8 " 



7 " , 




34 oz. 

28 oz. 

30 oz. 

32 " 

26 " 

28- " 

30 " 

24 " 

26 ^ 




30 " 

24 " 

26 kt 

2S " 

22 " 

24 - fc 

26 u 

20 " 

22 «- 



Weight Limit of Bantams. Cockerel. 

Cochin Bantams except Bull. . 30 oz. 

Buff Cochin Bantams 28 ,k 

Other Bantams except. Game. 26 " 

Standard Weight. Cockerel. 

Cochin Bantams except Buff ... . 26 " 

Buff Cochin Bantams 24 " 

All Others except Game 22 " 

Description of Breeds. 
American fanciers recognize ten classes of chickens. Each 
of these classes has a general stamp or character which may be 
readily recognized as characteristic, and are distinguishing fea- 
tures of that particular class. The first class is the American, 
which includes five breeds: 


f Barred 

Plymouth Rocks v „ , v 
J | rea-Comb Barred 


f Silver 
I Golden 
Wyandotte . -{White 
| Buff 
{ Black 

Java . . -{Mottled 

Dominique . American 
Jersey Blue . Jersey Blue 
To this class may also be added American Wonder, black and 
white; Khode Island Reds, Argonauts, Sherwoods, and other 
breeds not yet sufficiently established to be admitted to the 
fancier's standard. 

This claim is characterized by a great variety of plumage, 
some of the birds having great beauty. They are general pur- 
pose chickens, are superior layers, and most of them make afct- 



tractive 'dressed poultry. They are, generally, well adapted to 
the conditions of our American farms, are hardy, active, early 
maturing; they are sitters but may be easily broken up. As 
mothers they are inferior to the Asiatics. For general farm 
purpose these breeds stand at the head of the list. 

The second class is the Asiatic which- includes the following : 





\ Light 


j Partridge 

1 White 

t Black 

r 7 \ Black 

Langshan . ] White 

All these are characterized as large, heavy birds with fea- 
thered legs and clumsy movements. They are among the larg- 
est birds that we have. They have gentle disposition, and as a 
class, are quiet, lazy, easily confined, and bear restraint well. 
They make good mothers, are good sitters, and fairly good lay- 
ers. They are desirable upon the farm for winter layers, and 
as mothers for taking care of the chicks of non- fitting varieties. 
If used for broilers they should be crossed with other breeds. 

The third class ot fowls is the Mediteranean which includes 
the following: 


' Brown 
Rose Comb Brown 
Rose Comb White 

{ Black 
Silver Dnckwing 

[Red Ryle Leghorn (?) 

%r- j Black 

Minorca . "j White 

Andalusian . Blue 

Spanish . . White Face Black 




The Mediterraneans are characterized by their active, nerv- 
ous movements, and are smaller birds than the American class. 
The development of the comb of the female is peculiar in the 
single comb varieties in that it hangs over one side of the face, 
well down over the eye, and in the male by the development 
of very large and erect single comb. The rose combs are also 
characteristic in these varieties. These birds are probably the 
greatest egg producing machines that we have. They are prom- 
inently egg producers. They are all classed as non-sitters, 
though occasionally a hen becomes broody, but even in that 
case they are unreliable mothers, 

The fourth class is the Polish, which includes the following: 




f White Crested Black 

1 Golden 

| Silver 

J White 

1 Bearded Golden 

| Bearded Silver 
| Bearded White 
(Buff Laced 

All the birds of this class are crested or carrj' topknots, and 

some of them are bearded. The fowls and eggs of this breed 

are small, but they are prolific layers and are much admired 

by fanciers. They are not well adapted for the country where 

hawks can drop down upon them without their being aware 

that an enemy is approaching them from above. Recently the 

Polish class seems to have improved somewhat, as it had been 

undoubtedly weakened by the efforts of faneiers to produce 

particular feather developments rather than strength of body. 

The fifth class is the Hamburg, which includes the following 
varie ies : 


( Golden Spangled 
| Silver Spangled 
! Golden Penciled 


j Silver Penciled 
| White 


Redcaps . . Silver 
Cam-pines . . Golden 

Most of the birds of this class are characterized by beautiful 
pencils or spangles, and are much admired on account of their 
beautiful plumage. As a class they are excellent layers, pro- 
ducing a large number of rather small eggs. Their bodies are 
small. They are nervous, active birds, very difficult to confine. 
They are classed with the non-sitters, and have sometimes been 
called perpetual layers. All of them, except the Campines, 
have rose combs, the Campines being single comb Hamburgs 
recently introduced. 

The sixth class in the French, which includes the following: 


Houdan ...... Mottled 

Crevecoeur .... Black 

La Fleche Black 

All of this class have the leaf or V shaped comb, the plumage 
of the Houdan being mottled black and white, and that of the 
other two breeds being black. The Houdan has five toes and is 
crested. The Crevecoeur has a large protuberance on top of 
the head, and is black, having four toes. The La Fleche is 
black, and has a branching antler-like comb which stands up 
like two horns. 

The French class are considered good layers, and are superior 
for table purposes. The Houdan is likely to grow in popularity 
as it becomes known. 

The seventh class is the English and consists of the following: 


Dorking . ^Silver Gray 


This class is characterized by five toes. The birds are of 
medium size, of rapid development and are prized as table fowls. 
The body is long, deep and full, and the neck and legs short, 
giving it a very substantial appearance. They are good layers. 


The eighth class is the Games and include the following : 



Game Bantam . < 


Black Breasted Red lied 
Golden Duckwing 
Silver Duckwing 
Red Pyle 

"Black-Breasted Red. 

Brown Red 

Golden Duckwing 

Silver Duckwing 

Red Pyle 


[ Birchen 


Black- Breasted Red 

Indian Game 

The Game fowls are characterized by a stately carriage, and 
have small single, or strawberry erect combs and small wattles. 
It has been the fashion to dub the birds, or cut off the combs 
and wattles, which produces a fierce, war-like appearance. The 
birds that are bred according to the standard are seldom used 
for fighting purposes, but are employed for exhibition and 
practical uses. They are a hardy race, having great muscular 
development about the breast, and are valuable for crossing 
upon other breeds. Game hens make the best of mothers and 
are very courageous in defending their broods from enemies. 
The Indian Game is a lar^e, attractive bird, recently intro- 
duced from England and is particularly recommended for cross- 
ing with other fowls for market purposes. There are a number 
of breeds of this class that have considerable merit, especially 
as table fowls. 

The ninth class consist of Bantams other than Game, and are 
as follows : 


| Silver 



n /» 7 7 (White 

nose- Combed . )m a it 

Bioiei . . White 

Cochin . . i Wh 

f Buff 

Japanese . {White 

! Black 
Polish White-Crested White 

All the birds of this class are used purely for fancy purposes. 
The standard weight of the cocks being about 26 oz. and the 
hens 22 oz. They are bred for pets and for purely ornamental 
purposes. Often in the neighborhood of the city a profitable 
business can be built up in breeding them as pets for children; 
and frequently wealthy people like to have a few of them in 
their yards. Their meal is said lo be excellent, and their eggs, 
though small, are fine flavored. The Golden Sebright is prob- 
ably the most popular of the varieties. 

The tenth class comprises miscellaneous chickens, such as the 
following : 


Russian . . . Biai-k 

Sumatra . . Black 

Silky . . . White 

Sultan . . . White 

Frizzles . . . Any Color 

Rumpiess . . . Any Color 

These breeds are little known and are rarely on exhibition. 
We have a pen of Silkies at the Experiment Station. These are 
excellent mothers for the non-sitting varieties. I know nothing 
of their qualities as table poultry. Their feathers are charac- 
terized by a downy appearance, and lack the usual web devel- 
opment which we recognize as feathers. They are unable to 
fly, and may be confined within very low fences. 

In this class may also be placed the Creepers, a breed with 



legs so short that they may only through courtesy be said to 
walk. They are kepi, principally, as curiosities, and are little 
known in this country. 

Barred Plymouth Rocks. 

For a general purpose breed perhaps none is superior to this 
one. They have good size, clean, briaht yellow lesrs, are large 
bodied and produce an excel'ent quality of meat. They mature 
quite rapidly, and fatten quickly for market. They are good 



Cocks weigh 9| lbs. 
Hens weigh 7-J- lbs. 

]ayers, and hardy, vigorous birds. It is one of the very best of 
the American breeds. They are readily accustomed to any lo- 
cality, whether hot or cold. 

We have endeavored to secure the finest stock of Barred 
Plymouth Rocks obtainable, and have in our pen several prize- 
winning birds. Their markings are superb. 

In disposition they are active and iientle, but bear confine- 
ment well. They are not high flyers, and while sufficiently ac- 
tive to find their own living upon the farm, they are not dis- 
posed to wander great distances from home. This is perhaps- 



the idea! general-purpose breed for this country. It is preemi- 
nently the fowl for the farmer and mechanic. In fact, proba- 
biy the best for all who can keep only one breed. 

White Plymouth Roeks. 

This excellent breed of chickens had its origin in Maine, and 
on^aceount of its intrinsic merits has become largely known 
throughout the whole'country. They are of generous size, sym- 

• Cocks weigh 9i lbs. 
Hens weigh 7| lbs. 

metrically formed, and have a beautiful yellow skin, beak and 
legs, This year our pen of White Plymouth Rocks proved to 
be among the best layers of any fowls kept at the Agricultural 
Experiment Station farm. The chicks are hardy, vigorous and 
very tenacious of life. We prize this bird as among the best on 
the farm. We think the most fastidious cannot fail to be 
pleased with them. They have most excellent constitutions, 
and do not readily yield to any of the poultry diseases. 










Cock 5 * weigh 9 lbs. 
Hens weigh 7i lbs. 


The Buff Plymouth Roek. 

We consider this bird one of the most valuable acquistions to- 
the poultry yard. Everything that is said of the Barred Ply- 
mouth Rock can be said with equal truth of the Buff Plymouth 
Rock. Perhaps however, no breed of chickens is better adapt- 
ed to the production of early broilers than is the Buff Ply- 
month Rock. They arj vigorous and healthy, develop rapidly, . 
and their buff color obscures the pin feathers which are so 
objectionable in young chickens of other colors. They are, if 
pos ible, more vigorous than the Barred variety of the Ply- 
mouth Rocks, and we commend them most heartily to farmers 
as a general purpose bird worthy of much more extensive adop- 
tion in this country than they have received. Try them and 
you will like them I am quite sure. They are too excellent to 
disappoint you. 

The Silver-Laeed Wyandottes. 
Among the general purpose fowls that have recently at- 
tracted the attention of breeders, few have been received with 
greater favor than have the Silver-Laced Wyandottes. Their 
friends claim for them superior qualities for the production of 
early broilers. They mature rapidly, and their clear yellow 
skin makes them desirabie market fowls. In fact, few birds 
afford better Qualities as market fowis than do the Wyandottes. 
They are moderate layers, have very attractive plumage, and 
their carriage is aristocratic and striking. Last spring when 
our Silver Laced Wyandotte had the run of a corner of the 
University Campus, I was much surprised and delighted at the 
attention they attracted even from people who ordinarily pay 
r.o attention to poultry. They are'easily broken up when they 
become broody, but if allowed to sit are said to make excellent 

sii.Y!:".-i. \<i::> wyandottes 



Cocks weigh 8$ lbs. 
Hens weigh 6+ lbs. 

White Wyandottes. 

Recognizing the importance of the Wyandotte family of 

birds to; the ponliiy in lust ry of the country, we have also 

secured a pen of ve y choice White Wyandottes. which we 

think equal to any in the country. As layers ihey are excel- 



lent and their rapid growth, pure white plumage, bright red 
faces, ear lobes and wattles, and their nice yellow legs, beak 
and skin, cause them to command the highest price in the 
choicest markest of the country. We have been extremely 
gratified during the past year at the laying qualities of this 
bird. In our hands it has done all that could be expected of it. 
The birds have been uniformly healthy and vigorous. They 
are well adapted to the farm or to broiler establisments. 

Cocks weigh 8-S- lbs. 
Hens weigh 6i lbs. 

Golden Wyandottes. 
This is a breed of chickens of comparatively recent origin, 
but by their merits they have gained hosts of friends and are 
rapidly coming to the front as general purpose fowls. The gold 
lacing, rose comb, clean yellow legs and excellent carriage of 
the birds make them a breed that in our judgment will be 
largely sought after as they become known. In our hands they 
ihave been good egg-producers, have been very healthy and 
vigorous, and are one of the best general-purpose fowls on the 
Station farm. 


The Rhode Island Reds. 


The Rhode Island Red is a breed of- chickens deve' oped along 
the shores of Narragansett Bay, among farmers of that section,, 
which has not yet been admitted to the American Standard, 
but is worthy of the attention of breeders on account of its ex- 
cellent qualities. The crosses from which these fo vis have 
originated are quite complicated, and are perhaps different in 
different sections, as the fowls are the result of the mingling 


Co:ks weigh 8-i lbs. 
Hens weigh 61 lbs. 

probably of Brown Leghorn, Malay, Ply nouth R ><|-, Wyan- 
dotte, Buff Cochin and Partridge Cochin, more or less crossed 
with the common Dunghill fowl. 

The shape of the bi.-J is not very different, from that of the 
Plymouth Rock. It has yellow legs, which are generally free 
from feathers, though sometime; s'.ighiy feathered, and Mn 
plumage it ranges from bu Y to re Idish buff, the males appear- 
ing much darker in color than the females. The comb is either 



single or rose, the rose comb being perhaps the more prefer- 
able, but lire single comb birds are the ones which have gener- 
ally been exhibited. The skin is yellow. , 

There are two recognized breeds of chickens that seem to 


Cocks weigh about 9 lbs 
Hens weigh about 7 lbs. 

have sprung from the Rhode Island Red, namely, the Buff Ply- 
mouth Rock and the Buff Wyandotte, or M least, to have been 
developed by similar processes. The tendency of the Rhode 
Island Red appeal s to be toward a bail* color, and it is said to 


'be very easy to produce from a pen of Rhode Island Reds, 
fowls which will pass either for Buff Plymouth Rocks or Buff 
Wyandoltes, according to their combs, and also by the infusion 
of Leghorn blood, to produce fowls which will pass as Buff Leg- 
horns. It is said by H. S. Babcock, from whom I have received 
the most of the above facts, that this remarkable feat has been 
performed in the sectioa of country where the Rhode Island 
Reds predominate. 

In developing this breed we shall endeavor to so mate the 
birds as to fix the red color and secure a fowl as red as practi- 
cable, rather than buff. 

As a table foul and as a producer of egg?, the Rhode Island. 
Red has much to commend it. In fact, it is one of the most 
satisfactory breeds of chickens we have on \ha Agricultural 
Experiment station grounds. It is of good size and presents 
a handsome appearance when dressed. 

The American Black Wonders. 

This is a new breed of chickens, orignatei by H. G 
McDowell of Canton, Stark County, Ohio. They have not 
been admitted to the American standard as yet, and we have 
secured a pen of them in order to test their merits. This new 
breed is stated by the originator to be the result of continued 
effort to perfect a breed in all points to suit the fancy of the 
breeder. The effort of the originator has been to overcome as 
many objections apparent in other birds, as possible, and to 
combine hardiness, market purposes and egg-producing prop- 
erties, together with early maturity, great vitality and lasting 

He'states that "the plumage is solid black, the outward tinge 
greenish black, and quite glossy ; inside, next to the skin, white 
and very downy ; skin, very yellow; scales of legs and bill, 
yellow. Both single and rose combs appear; and it has white 
ear lobes, short legs, heavy thighs, deep body and wide, short, 
flat back. It has also a closely knit frame with no feathers on 
the legs, nor surplers head weight and is a large and stylish 
bird. He seems to have combined manv of the most desirable 



qualities of the best, pure breeds of chickens. Pullets lay at 
four and five months old ; hens lay the year round." 

The hens weigh when full grown about 8 lbs., and cock about 
lOlbs. The cockerels on the farm weigh about 7 lbs when five 
months old, and they are very healthy and vigorous. The hens 


Cock weighs 9| lbs. 
Hen weighs 1\ lbs. 

are said to be good brooders but none of them set for us this 
year. Our pen, bought of the originator, laid quite well but 
the birds are verp shy and nervous, and varies a little in dis- 
cription from the above. Their qualities remain to be tested. 



Back Javas. 
The Black Javas are an American bived of chicken* possess- 
ing the very best table qualities. Th i breast is deep and' full', 
the body long, broad and dee ) r.n 1 just the right shape to pu( 

on flesh where it is most needed. The shape of the Java is- 
very symmetrical. They have excellent constitutions, and in. 
point of vigor and vitality are excelled by few if any fowls-. 
They resist attacks of disease of every kind with great persis- 
tency. They seem to be well adapted to close quarters, and* 
taking them all in all are much to be admired. We commend 
them to farmers as general purpose fowls. 

Cock weighs 12 lbs 
Hen weighs 9.V lbs. 



Light Brahmas 

-For thepast thirty years no breed of poultry has sustained 

itself so uniformly over the country, and been more admired 

Cby fanciers, than-bave the Light Brahmas. They are admirably 

adapted both to villages and farms, owing to their quiet habits 

-and the ease with which they may be kept in inclosures. If, 

however, they have the range of the farm, they avail themselves 

of it. There are few more beautiful sights than a nice flock of 

Xiight Brahmas, seeking food in a green pasture field. We 

"think they mature to slowly to be adapted for early broilers, 

tmt they have the reputation of being excellent winter layers 

and producing- excellent -poultry for the market. A good hen 
binder favorable conditions, will lay about 150 fine flavored eggs 
a. year, and in addition rear a nice brood of chickens, and, if 
vi hey are properly housed, about 100 of the eggs will be laid 
he) ween December and June. 

They require heavy feeding and delight to eat out of the hand 
«ar basket, and- will become extremely gentle with a little care. 


Cock weighs 11 lbs. 
. Hen weighs Sir lbs. 



Partridge Cochins. 

One of the most popular of the Asiatic breeds of chickens is 
the Partridge Cochin. They breed very uniformly in feather 
and form, and their heavy feathers admirably adapt them to 
the cold climates. They have no large combs or wattles to get 
frost-bitten in severe weather. They are vigorous and healthy 
and not subject to ordinary poultry ailments. 

Their movements are slow and clumsy and they are content- 
ed to remain inside of a very low enclosure. In fact, they can 
scarcely fly over a fence three feet high. There dispositions 
are gentle, and they bear confinement well. 

They are not extra layers but begin early and lay well in 
winter, so that their eggs come at a time when they command 
the highest, prices. They become broody early, and for that 
reason are well adapted for hatching early chickens. They 
make most excellent and reliable mothers. 

We cheerfully recommend them to farmers or mechanics re- 
quiring fowls with these peculiarities, and also to families in 
town with limited yards in which to keep poultry. 

At the Experiment Station we shall use this breed as 
mothers for non sitting varieties, and for raising early stock. 

Cock weighs 10 lbs. 
Hen weighs 7 lbs. 


Black Langshans. 

This is one of the favorite Asiatic breeds, eminently adapted! 
for general purposes. They are natives of China and have 
rapidly gained in public favor, both as market fowls and good 
egg producers. They are very hardy being natives of a cold cli- 
mate. They are much more active than most other Asiatie 
fowls and are better foragers, thus being well adapted to find 
their living upon the farm. They are of large size, having 
white flesh and skin and excellent flavored meat, and make 
choice table fowls. The pullets commence to lay when quite 
young and make good winter layers. The eggs are mostly 
dark colored, though not strictly of one color. The birds are 
very large and well built. The cocks have a very aristocratic 
bearing and greenssh-black plumage which gives them a strik- 
ing appearance. The hens are excellent mothers, and are very 
tame and gentle, but they are not persistent sitters. 

It is a breed of fowls that we would like to see receive more 
attention than it. does at the hands of our farmers. We are 
quite confident that if they were to give it a trial they would be 
so well pleased with it that it would soon become one of the 
famous breeds of the state. 

Single Comb Brown Leghorns. 

The Single Comb Brown Leghorn breed belongs to the Medi- 
terranean class and is recognized as one of the best egg-produc- 
ing varieties of fowls in this country. They belong to the non- 
sitting class, and day a very large number of medium size,, 
white eggs, of especially fine flavor. Where the object is to 
produce eggs for the market, perhaps no variety will be found 
to exceed the Single Comb Brown Leghorn's- for egg producing 
capacity. They are nervous and active foragers, and will search 
the farm over for choice food. Perhaps no breed of chickens is 
better able to take care of itself than they are and where fowls- 
can have the run of a farm, perhaps no better variety can be 
found. It is pre-eminently an egg-producing breed. Their 
meat is very tender, sweet r juicy and fine grained,, but their 



Cock weighs about G lbs. 
Hen weighs about 4 lbs. 

bodies are small so that they are not so well suited for table 
use as larger and heavier varieties. 

Our pen of Brown Leghorns are vigorous fowls, very free 
from usual poultry diseases and have proven to be regular egg 
producing machines. A Leghorn hen will lay over 200 eggs a 
year. A farmer provided with a hundred and fifty well fed and 
properly cared for Leghorn hens will be surprised at the in- 
come they will bring him. 




Cock weighs about 6 lbs. 
Hon weighs about 4 lbs. 

Single Comb White Leghorns. 

The Single Comb White Leghorn breed is, in general make- 
up, the same as the Brown variety, except in color. They are 
pure white. They are non-sitters, lava large number of ex- 
cellent, white eggs of medium size and superior flavor. The 
White Leghorn eggs have proved more fertile than any variety 
with which we have experimented. "The chicks are quite hardy 
mature very earl}'" and the pullets begin laying when about 
four or five months old. Our White Leghorns have borne con- 
finement well, although when left to roam at will they are ex-* 
cellent foragers. They have a beautiful yellow skin, and we 
consider them one of the handsomest chickens on the farm 
We are so well pleased with this variety of fowls that we ex- 
pect to raise large numbers of them upon the farm for future 
use, and we recommend them heartly to farmers wishing a vig- 
ouous, healthy, profitable fowl. 

Blue Andalusians. 
This is a breed of fowls which appears originally to have been 
imported into England from Andalusia, Spain, about fifty years 
ago, and on account of Ilieir excellent qualities they have re- 
ceived considerable attention in England and in this country. 




Cocks weigh about S lbs. 
Hens weigh about 6.V lbs. 

They belong to thenon -sit ting class, and as layers they have no 
superiors. Under proper care they will lay the whole year- 
round, both summer and winter. The eggs are white ancD 
medium size. The chicks are very healthy, grow very rapidly- 
and the breed is well adapted for crossing wi h other varieties! 



where it is desirable to produce early broilers. They feather 
quickly and present a very fine appearance at an early age_ 
The pullets begin laying when about four months old. The 
fowls present a stylish appearance. They have large red combs, 
red wattles and face and white ear lobes. The principal objec- 
tion to them from the fancier's standpoint is that they do not 
breed true to color, as most other varieties do. This is a charac- 
teristic of the breed which has never been overcome, and while 
one can guarantee the purity of his eggs and the uniformity 
and high class of his fowls, he can never be sure that the eggs 
will hatch chicks of uniform color. In fact, we are quite cer- 
tain that there may be a number of off-color chicks in every 
setting. Notwithstanding this, the breed has so many excel- 
lent qualities that we can commend it to the favorable consid- 
eration of farmers and others. 


Cocks weigh 8 lbs. 
Hens weigh G£ lbs. 

Black Minoreas. 

The Black Minorca breed belongs to the Mediterranean class 

of non-sitters, of which they are the largest. They combine 

beauty&and utility and are favorites of the fancier and popular 

with, the public, as they are among the best egg-producers 



■ ;■ u r/s a 



■ u mmJ. 

V. >>< 


Cocks weigh 8 lbs. 
Hens weigh G£ lbs. 

known. Their eggs average about one pound and fourteen 
-ounces to the dozen, and some breeders of the Black Minorca 

are anxious to establish the custom of selling the eggs by 

weight instead of by the dozen. 

They are active fowls and they lova to range over an ex- 
pended area, being abundantly able, to provide their own food 


if given the opportunity. They are less nervous than the- 
Leghorns, and if carefully handled become very tame and 
bear confinement well. 

The chicks are hardy and easily reared, and lay when four or 
five month old. The Black Minorcas are good winter layers 
and we commend the breed to persons who wish excellent 
winter layers, and vigorous healthy stock. They do not appear- 
to be damaged by breeding for fancy points like seme others. 
We are great admirers of this breed, and expect to raise a. 
large number of them upon the College farm. 

White Minorcas 
This is a breed of chickens closely resembling the Black 
Minorcas except in color. They are non-sittters and produce 
a large number of good sized eggs. There is perhaps no dif- 
ference in tie laying qualities of the Minorcas varieties. They 
are very hardy, early matured, and the pullets lay when very 
young. The White Minorcas is perhaps a triflle smaller than, 
the Black. 

Silver Spangled Hamburgs- 

This is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful varieties of 
fowls bred in this country, and an ornament to any yard or 
any ft.rm. Besides their beautiful appearance they are one of 
the greatest cg^-produeing breeds ever introduced into the 
country. They are non-titters, and have very justly been 
cal ed ''everlasting layers." 

Hamburgs are nervous, aclive fowls, and they do best with, 
a considerable area to roam over, though they bear confine- 
ment well. They are hi_h flyers, and are better adapted to the 
to the farm than the village. Their bodies are to small to be 
favorites for table or m irket, but for persons wh > wish to raise- 
poultry for e<igs, few breeds will give better satisfaction than. 
Silver Spangled ilamburgs. 





Cocks weigh about 74- lbs. 
Hens weigh about Gi lbs. 

Red Caps. 
The Red Cap belongs to the Hamburg class and appears to be 
•a breed of chickens developed in England. At least they were 
imported from England into this country. For egg production 
they are considered superior to the Leghorn family. They have 
larger bodies with beautiful white, deliciously flavored flesh. 
They are non-sitters. They bear confinement well, and are a 
'breed of chickens whose popularity, in our judgment, will very 
(largely increase in the future. The plumage of the hen is nut 


brown, each leather ending in a bhtck spangle. The cocks are 
black on the breast, but on the back and wing coverts and sad- 
dle they are mahogany red. Their immense combs covered 
with little red protuberances, never fail to attract attention. 

The Houdans 

The Houdan breed of fowls was introduced from France, and 
is one of the most choice varieties for villages or thickly settled 
communities. They are crested and for that reason are unable 
to see a hawk or other, enemy approaching them from above. 
For this reason they are not well suited for sections of the coun- 
try infested by such pests. 

It is a very old breed, and it. is not known who the originator 
was, but since being imported into this country it has won many 
friends on account of its excellent qualities. The fowls are ex- 
tremely tame and docile, though sprightly, will not roam away, 
are not high flyers, and make fine pets, being well adapted for 
small, runs. They are hardy and thrive well under ordinary 

They have five toes, crests and beards are dark colored with 
white spots, and the shape of the body is much like that of the 
Dorking. They are considered valuable as table fowls, the 
meat being tender, juicy and fine flavored. They belong to the 
non-sitting varieties. 

The Houdan hen is a good layer and produces large white 
eggs which are generally fertile and of choice flavor. The cocks 
weigh about 7 lbs., and the hens about G lbs. From the short 
experience we have had with them upon the Experiment Sta- 
tion grounds, we are very highly impressed with their excel- 
lent qualities. We commend them to people living in thickly 
settled sections and believe they will be pleased with them. 
Ours are so gentle that we can pick them up almost any time- 
in the open yard. 

The Silver Gray Dorkings- 
The Silver Gray Dorkings is an English breed of fowl, im- 
ported into this country, and much prized in England on 
account of its table qualities. It is a large sized bird, of rai 



growth and early maturity. The cocks in full maturity weigh 
from 9 to 10 lbs. and the hens from T to 8. They are gentle 
in disposition, and ours enjoy being petted almost as much as 
a cat or dog does. They are good layers and lay most of their 
eggs between February and September. Their chief value, 
however, is their table qualities. They are of the five-toed 
variety. The breed is not very common in this section of the 
country, but we believe that as its qualities are better known 
it will be more highly appreciated. 



Jf Ik 

Cocks weigh 10 to 12 lbs. 
Hens weigh 8 to 11 lbs. 

Indian Games. 
Indian Games are rapidly gaining public favor. They are a 
3neral purpose fowl, but are better adapted for the production 


of meat than eggs. The meat is of superior quality, excellent 
flavor, and the fowls mature very early. They are eminently 
adapted for the production of early broilers. Their breasts are 
very full, the feathers lie close to the body, and the bird has a 
very powerful appearance, and is really one of* the heaviest 
birds produced upon the farm. The face, wattles and comb are 
bright red. They are very active, sprightly and vigorous, and 
have a commanding and courageous carriage, with the back 
sloping down towards the tail. The chicks are hardy and easily 
raised. They are not fighters as some people suppose, but are 
among the most peaceable and gentle birds that we have. They 
readily become pets and can easily be taught to eat out of the 
hand or to come to a person in the yard, and they enjoy being 
petted. The hens are good sitters and make the best of mothers. 
We have often noticed them, at the approach of a storm, gather 
their broods together and go to a shelter and carefully hover 
them, while the hens of other breeds would permit their chicks 
to get wet and thoroughly chilled before hovering them. 

The Indiam Game mothers hatched more eggs and raised 
more chicks than any other breed upon the farm, and we shall 
in future employ them quite largely there for this purpose. I 
cheerfully commend them to persons wishing an excellent 
breed of chickens. Care must, however, be exercised to keep 
them in clean houses, as they are more susceptible to roup or 
diphtheria than any breed with which we are acquainted. 

Blaek-Breasted Red Games. 

This is a breed of chickens 'worthy of much more general cul- 
tivation as a fowl for practical purposes than has been general- 
ly believed, owing to the fact that in the past they have been 
largely considered as adapted only for use in the pit. The only 
objection there is to them is the quarrelsome disposition of the 
male bird. This may be largely overcome by allowing the 
cocks a day of liberty alternately. They are so quarrelsome 
that two cocks cannot safely be free in the flock at the same 
time. The hen makes a most excellent mother. They are 
excellent layers of delicious eggs, and make a most sup rb table 



fowl, their flesh 1 eing unequaled on account of the richness of 
of its flavor. Where fanners are troubled with hawks, we 
commend to their- favorable consideration this breed of chick- 
ens; and believe that after a hawk has had an encounter with a 
vigorous cock of this breed his visits to the poultry yard will be 
few and far between. 

The average weight of the G^me cock is about six pounds; of 
the hen, about five pounds. 

Cocks weigh 26 oz. 
Hens weigh 22 oz. 

Golden Seabright Bantams- 
These little beauties are fine examples of both the useful and 
truly fancy fowl. They make great pets and are usually loved 
by children. They love to be handled, and the cock will sit on 
one's hand and crow. Their carriage is very upright and strut- 
ting and they soon become favorites in the poultry yard. They 
are excellent layers of small t ggs, good sitters, good mothers 

and are easily reared. They are yjiy hard}' - , and though small, 
are excellent, eating. They are commended to persons who 
have a sense of the as&thetiral and wish everything about them 
neat and beautiful. 



The Silkies are a curious breed of birds having a peculiar 
plumage which is webless, soft, silky aud pure white. They 
have a small crest, the comb is small, of a rose form and has a 
lumpy appearance and is of a dark purplish color. The legs 
are stout and furnished with a silky fluff which descends below 
the hocks. The shanks are feathered on the outside with silky 
plumage and are of a dark leaden or blue color. They have five 
toes, the outer one being feathered. The face is deep purple as 
is also the skin. We are not acquainted with the table quali- 
ties of this fowl as our pen of birds was imported from France 
and none of them have yet been killed by us. They are fairly 
good layers, are extremely gentle in disposition, are incapable 
of flight, and are contented to remain within a very narrow in- 
closure. The eggs are small but of good flavor. They make 
most excellent mothers, but as the birds are small they do not 
seem to be capable of incubating more than about eight eggs at 
a time. They are interesting curiosities which never fail to at- 
tract attention, and we shall use them as mothers for the non- 
sitting varieties. 



This may be divided into two periods. First, the feeding of 
young chicks; second, the feeding of grown fowls. The careful 
poultryman knows perfectly well the necessity of using the 
utmost care in feeding young chicks. Nothing should be given 
them for the first twenty four hours after they are hatched, and 
they should be permitted to remain under the hen or in the 
brooder until they manifest hunger by moving around and 
picking at any small object that may attract their attention. 

They will usualy show this development of appetite when 
they are about 24 to 30 hours old. 

We consider the best food that they can have to be baked 
corn bread made up with butttermilk and a little soda with a 
little egg stirred into the meal while mixing It should be 
baked so that it will crumble readily between the fingers. 
The finely crumbled bread should be caused to drop in front of 
the chickens where it will attract their attention, if the chickens 
have been hatched in the incubator. If they have been 
hatched by a lien, as soon as you put food in reach of her, if 
she is a good mother, she will break it up in small pieces, call 
the brood around her and teach them to eat it. 

Another very excellent material for feeding young chicks is 
stale bread soaked in milk and the milk squeezed out until the 
bread is comparatively dry. Also hard boiled egg chopped up 
and mixed with oat or corn meal to a granular condition is 
very excellent. This kind of feed can be continued for the 
first week after hatching, and care should be used not to permit 
an excess of the food to accumulate in the brooder or in the 
coop. What the chicks will eat up clean is the proper amount. 

The second week the food can be varied by giving them some 
cracked wheat or cracked corn. If it can be arranged so that 
they will not have enough to eat without being compelled to 
scratch after it in the brooder yard, so much the better. After 
the first week, a hen with a brood of chickens should be per- 


milted to have a small run or yard hi which to exercise and 
keep her chickens in motion. 

Fine grit from crushed rock or oyster-shell should always be 
kept, in easy reach of the flowing chicks. It is surprising how 
much of this material they will use, and frequently chicks suffer 
from the lack of grit which serves the purpose of teeth for them. 

Young chicks, whether raised in a brooder or by a hen, 
should be encouraged to search for their food by scratching, and 
after they are two weeks old a moderate amount of ground raw 
bone, or of fine chipped meat will be highly relished by them, 
but care should be observed not to give them enough to pro- 
duce bowel troubles which are likely to be very fatal to .young 
chicks. It is also well to mix with their food every day or, two 
fine chopped vegetables, such as lettuce, onions, chipped. cab- 
bage, sliced and cooked turnip, etc. In fact, the greater the 
diversity of food the young chicks can have, and the larger 
the amount of exercise they are compelled to take in getting it, 
the better their health is likely to be and the more rapidly 
thev will <rrow. 


In feeding grown chickens two objects are in view; first the 
development of the fowl, and second, the development of the 
egs. No one need expect to have nice chickens without pro- 
viding them an ample supply of diversified, wholesoni3 food 
which they should be made to scratch for as vigorously as 

It is necessary that the poultry raiser should not only sup- 
ply his chickens with a sufficiency of food to maintain them in 
prime condition, but it should be supplied in proper variety .to 
enable them to digest it and appropriate it to the uses of the 
animal system as easily and profitably as possible. Chickens 
will undoubtly always be healthier if they can have a large run 
or pasture lot where they can find an ample supply of greeu 
food in the form of fresh clover or grass. Anyone observing 

3.7$ "west '"ViKGiaix"' gds&EBiMENT station. 

;r flock .of chickens feeding in a field will be surprised at the 
•quantity of iireen stuff a chicken eats. Where'this cannot be 
provided by a natural growth, the chickens should have an 
simple supply of fine cut green food provided for them every 
<lay or two. Grown fowls should be fed twice a day. as early 
in the morning and late iti the evening as can be done. The 
morning feed may consist of a mash of cornmeal, wheat brand 
and midlines, mixed in the proportion of two parts of meal, one 
of brand and f>ne of middlings. This can be stirred the even- 
frig before -into hot skimmed milk or into boiling water to 
■which a teaspoonful of salt has been added to the gallon of 
water. This may be stirred up with fine cut clover or other 
green stuff until the mass is throughly mixed, and the chickens 
should have as much of this mixture in the morning as they 
will eat up clean, no more. There should be scattered in chaff 
or straw, where it is difficult to find a sufficiency of wheat, oats 
and other grain so that they will have to scratch considerably 
«during t<he day in order to find if. the object beins to force 
them? to exercise as much as possible in fretting their food. 
At ni«ht it is a good idea to give the chickens a liberal supply 
of ground green bones with scraps of meat and a moderate sup- 
ply of cracked corn, wheat or other grain. If feeding for eggs 
he careful not to feed an excess of corn or corn meal. It is too 
ftttehing. Other grains are better for the production of eggs, 
it is best never tri irive the chickens as much fresh bone as they 
-will eaf. A cabbage head or a beet hungup so that the chickens 
will have to jump to pick it, affords excellent amusement and 
proves a Ivantageous in the chicken yard. 

The slops of the kitchen and sour milk or butter-milk of the 
■dairy mixed with corn meal or middlings and stirred up as not 
to be sloppy, form excellent foods for chickens. In fact, the 
^wastes of the kitchen mixed with little corn meal or middlings 
may be thoroughly utilized by the farmer. We are not discuss- 
ing the scientific feeling of chickens in the present considera- 
tion of the subject. The larger the range chickens hate of 
course'thelless food they require, but the farmer will always 
iittd it economic to feed his chickens, youn ; or old, regularly 


and sufficiently. Be sure there is always within reach an. 
abundant supply of crushed oyster-shells or other grit. 

The quantity of food varies vviih the different breeds of 
chickens, and can be determined by a little observation, and ex- 
perience. The man who expects to do much with poultry 
should make it a point to have green clover, green oats, greeik 
fodder-corn, or other green products of the larm that may be? 
cut into small pieces and led to the chickens. It is an excellent 
way of utilizing apples,, small potatoes; turnips, pumpkins, 
beets, cabbages, onions, and in fact almost every product of the? 
farm or garden. A chicken eai> almost everything, if it is 
properly prepared for it. It is a good idea to use a liberal 
supply of cayenne pepper and a moderate amount of salt in the? 
preparation of feed stulf for chickens, in the spring of the year 
a good leed of raw bone and meat to a pen of chickens will fre- 
quently start them to laying when nothing else, apparently, 

Much of the profit in the po nil try business depends upon the 
skill of the poultry man in feeding his stock. When feedingfor 
eggs the poultry man must 'remenaioer that the hen that is too 
fat or too lean will not produce ejigs profitably. In feeding foir 
broilers or roasters lor slaughter,, the niost stimulating and fat- 
tening foods that are economic and available,, snonld b<& 

If young chickens are kept in an enclosure where there- aire 
older chickens, provision should be made so that they can. 
run into a coop, or under a lattice work wiiich will prevent the? 
older chickens from robbing them of their lood or injuring: 
them. The form of coop that we have found best foe our brood 
hens is a flour barrel laid down on its side, and so staked that 
it cannot roll back and forth. The hen and her brood are pus 
in it at night and a loose cover put up in front to keep the 
chickens shut in, in the morning, and keep wr nin out. Tney 
have the run of the yard in i lie day time. Thia is proving a 
most excellent means of protecting the hens from rainy 


went her nnd from chilling blasts. This is much better than the 
ordinary coops recommended for hens with their broods, as the 
hen is thoroughly protected from storms and outside of danger. 
It is well to spray the barrel thoroughly either with petroleum 
emulsion or with crude petroleum in order to kill the lice, and 
also to whitewash the barrel inside before putting the hen and 
her brood in it. The barrel should be cleaned once or twice 
a week and dusted inside with air slacked lime. These barrels 
ear. usually be had in quantities for less than we can make the 
ordinary coops. Precaution, however, should also be used to 
clean coops or change their location, so that the hen will have a 
fresh place every few days for the coop. A coop if without a 
board bottom, should be placed upon dry ground high enough 
to prevent rains from overflowing it, and it should be tight 
enough to keep the hen from being exposed to drafts. 

In the case of chickens raised in the brooder, our experience 
has demonstrated that a circular brooder is the most satisfac- 
tory form. This prevents the chickens from crowding together 
in a corner and smothering each other, as they are liable to do 
in square or oblong brooders. On one occasion the last sum- 
mer, we lost a dozen fine chicks, due to this tendency of the 
chicks to crowd together whenever they get chilled. In the 
morning the weather was so warm that it was considered 
advisable to put out the lamp in the brooder. By noon an un- 
expected and sudden change in the atmosphere caused the 
chicks to crowd together in one corner of the brooder in the 
hope of getting warm, and in this way a number of them were 
smothered. We have had similar accidents to happen on sev- 
eral occasions where brooders of that shape were used. They 
do not happen in a brooder of circular form for the reason that 
there is no point at which the chicks can crowd together in suf- 
ficient numbers to cause suffocation. The most of the brooders 

in the market are not satisfactory, and we advise every one 
who raises chickens by incubators to consider carefully the 
question of proper brooders before miking investments. We 
think the brooder should be circular. Tiie light should be 
admitted from above; i\pt from the si les, or ends, if it is neces- 
sarv to use another form of brooder. 



1. ''The hen, like the cow, must be given bulky food. Give 
her all the chopped clover, scalded, that she can eat. If she is 
fat, the clover, with one ounce of clean meat per da> r , will soon 
compel her to lay." 

2. "Separate the layers from the others. You cannot keep old 
hens, pullets, fat hens, and lean hens together any more than 
you can keep dry cows, heifers not yet in milk, and fresh cows 
together, for they do not require the same food." 

3. "Grain is deficient in lime and mineral matter, but bran is 
rich in nitrogen, carbon and mineral matter." 

4. "Beans and peas, cooked, and thickened with bran, and fed 
twice a week, is excellent food for laying hens." 

5. "Linseed and cotton seed (cake or meal) is excellent, but 
all oily foods are liable to cause moulting. Use with care." 

6. "-The best food for laying hens is clover, finely chopped and 
scalded. A bucket of chopped clover, seasoned with bran, mid- 
dlings, linseed meal, or oatmeal, (changing the substances so as 
to afford variety) with beans twice a week, and meat or ground 
fish, will furnish more nitrogen for eggs than the hen can utilize." 

7. "The secret of feeding is to avoid getting your laying hens 

S. "Always keep your hens at work. An idle hen is never a 
good layer." 

9. "Breed is everything. The machine for converting food 
into eggs must be of the best to be had. Anything and every- 
thing will not do." 

10. "Good warm shelter saves food, and tiie better it is the 
cheaper, and the lower its cost." 

11. "Do not compel a few good hens to support the others. 
Kill the drones." 

12. "Do not waste time trying to cure egg-bound hens, or 
persistent cases of roup. The labor will be worth more than 
the hen." 

13. "You cannot go into the poultry business and trust to "A 

*Poultry Keeper, Special No. 2, p. 100. 


Man" at $15 a month. You must do the work yourself. The 
man may upset your boat." 

14. "You can't produce eggs and lice at the same time one 
business is entirely separate from the other." 

15. u How much to feed a dozen hens per day depends on how 
much the boss hens grab from the timid ones." 

16. "Leghorns and Brahmas cannot thrive together. Have 
your flocks uniform. When you send to a breeder for eggs of 
pure breeds remember that in that case u eggs are not. eggs." 
It is the stock you seek, not eggs particularly. You can get 
eggs at home, but not stock of the kin 1 you wish. 

17. One-half the people throw down grain, or fill feed hop- 
pers, because it is an easy way to feed, but they do not get any 

IS. Kick away the feed hopper. Never keep food before the 
hens continually. 

19. Condition powders cannot assist a hen to get something 
out of nothing. If the albumen is not in a large amount of 
food it will not be found in a teaspoonful of condition powders, 
but condition powders may be excellent for invigorating debili- 
tated hen. 

20. When your birds have bowel disease change the food for 
a day or-two,' and' change the grit. One-half the troubles are 
from lack of sharp, hard grit. 

21. If your hens "pip," or have swelled heads or eyes there 
is a crack or hole in the wall. Usually the draughts from some 
ventilator are the cause, and the surest remedy is to keep the 
house close at night, but it must be kept clean and neat. 

22. A farmer will get up at four o'clock, clean out the stalls, 
feed, milk, ship his milk daily (and Sunday, too,) make up the 
beds, milk and feed again, with a bare profit, if he has a dairy 
herd, but it is hard work to even clean out a poultry house 
once a week. 

23. Give warm water, ihree times a day, in winter. It is in- 
vigorating, and is superior to tonics. 

.24. They are no non-sitlers. A hen can be made to lay only 
a few eggs before beginning to incubate, or she caii be made to ■ 


lay right on until her moulting period. This has been demou- 
nt rated by experiment with Leghorns and Rrahams, by regulat- 
ing the food. A fat hen will sit. 

25. There is no difference, in any, respect, between chicks 
hatched under hens and those hatched in incubators. If there 
should be a difference it will be due to the kind of food and 
management. All that the incubator does is to get the chick 
out of the shell. A hen will do the same thing for a duckling, 
but the duckling does not become a chick. 

2G. Feathers on the legs, very large combs and wattles, and 
heavy crests, do not add, anything to egg production, and can 
be dispensed with. 

27. A yellow leg and skin does not indicate quality. The 
best table fowls (Games, Dorkings, Houdans, and Langshans) 
do not have yellow legs. 

28. One ounce of meat a day for one hen is the estimate, but 
of course, as hens differ, much depends on the kind of hen. No 
two hens are alike. 

29. From three to four ounces of grain per day is considered 
an allowance. 

30. Five pecks of corn, or its equivalent, is claimed to be an 
allowance for a hen one year. 

31. When hens lay nearly every day they require heavy 
feeding ; more grain and meat, and less clover being required. 
Feed as heavily as possible to active, laying hens, but be care- 
ful not to get your hens too fat. 

32. A good laying hen is always- at work. 

33. Make nests in a warm place in winter and in a cool place 
in summer. 

34. When hens droop, have leg weakness and gradually be- 
come weaker, the difficulty is due to injury of the spine, caused 
by the male. Remove him from the flock. 

35. It is the large grey louse on the heads and necks that 
cause hens and chicks to have the "sleepy" disease. 

36. A Leghorn will thrive on corn when a Brahma will not, 
because the Leghorn is more active, and works off the surplus. 



In this State there are three systems in practice : One the 
huckster system, in which the huckster calls at the farmer's 
home ami buys whatever poultry he may have for sale, either 
in the form of live poultry or dressed. Most generally, how- 
ever, the farmer sells it as live poultry, and the huckster dis- 
poses of it in the local markets. Another manner of selling it 
is to dress the poultry and ship it to commission merchants, 
generally[in the east. In such cases it is necessary for the poul- 
tryman to study carefully the markets, and to carefully kill, 
dress and pack the chickens, so that they will arrive at the 
market in a condition favorable for meeting the demands of the 
particular market. The choicest market for our chickens is the 
New York market. Particular classes of chickens will also find 
ready market in Philadelphia and Baltimore. All of these 
markets require poultry to be dressed in a particular manner, 
in order to meet their demands. Washington City market it is 
said is a dumping ground for all kinds of ^poultry that cannot 
be sold at other markets. If a chicken is too poor or too old to 
go to the other markets, poultrymen can generally sell it in the 
Washington City market. Not that there is not a demand for 
choice poultry in that market, but there appears to be a de- 
mand for second or third class poultry. 

It is rarely the case that our local markets are fully supplied 
with poultry. There is always a good demand for poultry and 
eggs in the local market. 

Dressed poultry for local markets has its head, feet and en- 
trails removed. Dressed poultry shipped to eastern markets 
does not generally have these removed. In dressing chickens 
for the eastern market they should be slaughtered by hanging 
them up by their feet over a box or barrel about as high as the 
breast of the operator, so that it will not be necessary to bend 
over while picking them. About a two-pound weight with a 
wire attached and a hook on the upper end so that it may read- 
ily be fastened to the chicken's beak or head, is considered by 
some pickers as advantageous in holding the chicken steadv 


while it is in i(s death struggles ami while it is being picked. 
The manner of slaughtering; is as follows : After the chicken 
has been suspended as described, by the legs, open its beak and 
with a sharp knife make a cross section at the base of the brain 
nnside of the mouth. Then turn the knife-bJade and make a 
deep cut in the roof of the mouth into the brain, then catching 
'both wings in one hand close to the body of the chicken, and 
with the other hand, which should be the right, catch the 
feathers on the back. The chicken in its death struggles is 
wholly insensible to the pain that would ordinarily be felt in 
plucking the feathers from it. The nervous system is relaxed, 
and a skilful picker will take all of the feathers off of the 
.chicken by. the time. it ceases to struggle. They should all be 
removed with expedition, while ihe nervous system of the 
chickens is entirely relaxed. With practice, in this way all of 
the feathers on a chicken can be removed in one minute or less 
time. As soon as the feathers are all off of the body, pull the 
quill-feathers from the wings and tail. If young chickens are 
being slaughtered, the pin feathers should all be carefully re- 
moved, (usually by an assistant,) the head and feet carefully 
•cleaned of any blood and dirt that may be clinging to them, 
and the chickens placed in the refrigerator or a cold room to 
cool them before packing for shipment. 

Chickens that are to be slaughtered should not have any feed 
for 36 hours before. This leaves the crop and alimentary canal 
free from food. If the crop contains food it is liable to become 
discolored, the food becomes sour, and thus damages the market 
value of the bird. 

No hot water should be used in dressing chickens, nor should 
any effort be made to free its body of pin feathers or down by 
holding it over a flame, as is frequently practiced by farmers 
who hope thereby to make their poultry have a more presenta- 
ble appearance. After the chickens are thoroughly cool, or 
chilled, their heads should be turned back under the wing, and 
r they may be packed in barrels ready for shipment. It is well 
to leave three or four inches of space at the top of the barrel, 
v which may be filled with cracked ice, if the weather is warm 


enough to require it. Under all circumstances they should be 
thoroughly cooled by placing them in a refrigerator or in a 
trough with cracked ice, before being packed in barrels for 
shipment. If packed in this way, poultry may be shipped with 
perfect security on a twenty-four h«>ur journey. 

There is no difficulty in shipping from almost any point in 
the State as far east as New Yorjk, as far west as Chicago and 
Cincinnati, or as far south as Richmo-nd.. Persons shipping 
poultry in this manner should take pains o carefully classify 
their fowls, and have only birds- of a particular class in one 
package. They should all be fat and in goo L condition.. One 
poor, scrubby chicken in a barrel inay reduce he value of the 
whole lot. The poultryman should endeavorl o. have all of the 
fowls of a particular color together. In shipping do not mix 
the yellow skinned ones with the while skinned ones, or the 
yellow shanked ones with the lead colored or blue shanked 
ones. It always tends to reduce the value of the poultry to mix 
in this manner, even when of first-class quality otherwise. 
Where it is necessary to slaughter and ship culls,, they should 
be packed separately, and distinctly marked as second class. 
The poultryman who expects to command the highest price in 
the. market, must that every fowl shipped by him is 
first class in every respect, so that every one purchasing irom 
him in future will understand that he will secure only the best. 

Every package should be marked with the shippers name and 
address upon its and there is no objection to every chicken also 
bearing a tag with his name upon it. In this way, in a short 
time, a choice and continuous market can be built up. 

Where you do not have enough dressed poultry to fill a bar- 
rel, a smaller package, as a clean box,. can be used. Also see 
that the barrels or boxes are thoroughly scalded out., and then 
wash with salt water inside, before packing the poultry in 

In shipping live chickens, it is best to use pither a light wire 
coop, made lor that purpose, or some of the patent folding 
coops, which should be carefully labeled with the shipper's 
name and address, so that they may be returned.. Be careful 


to not crowd the. coops too full, especially in warm weather, as 
chickens are liable to be smothered in transportation under 
such conditions. The humane shipper will see that chickens 
are fed and watered before starting them on their journey. The 
same care should be observed in shipping live poultry that is 
indicated in shipping other kinds, if practicable. That is, to 
have only first class chickens in a coop together. If poor, sec- 
ond class chickens must go to market, put them in a coop by 
themselves. If they are mixed the whole lot will be graded by 
the runts. 

Eggs shipped to market may be sent forward in crates manu- 
factured for that purpose and provide with paste-board parti- 
tions which will keep them from striking against one another 
and breaking. The expressmen, however, are quite careless in 
handling them and even with this arrangement there is nearly 
always more or less breakage. Where special care is exercised, 
and dry ohaffor fine cut straw is liberally sprinkled in between 
each layer, this breakage may be reduced to a minimum. Never 
use fresh or moist chaff or straw, as they are liable to sweat and 
spoil the eg«:s in a short time. Eggs may also be packed in bar- 
rels by placing a layer of straw about three inches thick at the 
bottom and around the sides and then placing the eggs in straw 
or chaff layer upon layer, packed so that there will be about an 
inch of the straw or chaff between each e2,^. When the barrel 
is packed to within about three inches of the top it should be 
filled in with straw carefully smoothed down, and the head of 
of the barrel put in. Care should be observed not to press the 
eggs while [lacking. About 70 doz?ns can be packed in an 
ordinary flour barrel. It is well to shake the barrel gently 
after every layer is put in. Whether shipped in crates or in 
barrels, the correct count should be plainly marked upon the 
package and care observed to send only fresh eggs. If stale - 
ejisrs are shipped, they should go in a package by themselves 
and should be so designated. 


Eggs shipped for hatching: must be fresh, and should be care- 
fully wrapped in paper and then packed in soft excelsior in? 
suitable baskets for shipping. The most convenient form for 
single or double sittings, is the light baskets used for shipping 
grapes and other fruit. A layer of excelsior or dry finely cut 
straw should be placed in the bottom of the basket, and the 
eggs carefully placed in this with the large end up; and after 
the first layer is in, a liberal supply of finely cut straw or chaff 
should be poured in and t he basket gently shaken so that it 
will settle in between the eggs. Be sure to avoid any violent 
shaking. After the eggs are all in they should be covered with 
excelsior about two inches thick and newspapers pressed down 
carefully over them, and over this may be fastened the lid. Oi\ 
if the basket does not have a lid, a piece of cheap muslin may 
be carefully sewed in all around the basket so as to keep the 
eggs in place. Where large shipments of eggs for hatching pur- 
poses are made, there is perhaps nothing better than the half 
bushel basket. The advantage of the light baskets is that the 
expressmen handle them carefully, and if eggs are properly 
packed in this manner, they are certain to arrive at their desti- 
nation in good order. 

Eggs received for hatching purposes should be allowed to» 
rest in a cool room or cellar for twenty-four hours before un- 
packing, in order to allow them to properly settle before plac- 
ing them under the hen or in the incubator. 

The price of eggs shipped for market purposes, of course, i& 
controlled by the supply and demand of the market. The 
poultryman shipping eggs to the several markets should care- 
fully observe the prices, and take advantage of the days or sea- 
sons when the market is not overstocked. There are also 
whims of customers that have to be carefully met in order to 
command the highest prices. Some markets look with favor 
upon light colored eggs, and other markets wish the dark 
colored ones. The poultryman should be careful as far as prac- 


ticable, to pack the eggs of uniform color and size in packages 
by themselves. These constitute choice eggs and command the 
highest prices when fresh. If mixed, of course, the price is- 
liable to be cut. 

The price of eggs for hatching purposes varies with the breed 
of fowls, the season of the year, and the reputation of the 
breeder for furnishing fertile, carefully selected eggs. In this- 

case the purchaser is not buying eggs but buying stock ; and he 
insists that the eggs shall be true to name, and shall be guar- 
anteed of the highest quality in every respect. Eggs for hatch- 
ing purposes where supplied in large numbers for incubators, 
cost from $3 to $10 per hundred, the high priced eggs being for 
choice, thoroughbred stock, and the low-priced being good fer- 
tile eggs for the production of broilers. 

The greater part of the eggs sold for hatching purposes, how- 
ever, go as single sittings of 13 eggs for chickens, 11 for ducks* 
7 for geese, and D for turkeys. During the most favorable part 
of the season, April, thoroughbred eggs per sitting will cost 
about as follows : 


88 to 91 91 to 92 92 to 94 

for sitting of for sitting of for sitting of 
13 eggs, 13 eggs, ' 13 eggs, 

Variety. about about about 

Brahmas $1.75 $2.50 $4.00 

Cochins 1.75 2 50 4.00 

Black Langshans 1.75 2.50 4.00 

Barred Plymouth Rocks 1.50 2.25 3.00 

White Plymouth Rocks. ...... 1.50 2.25 3.00 

Buff Plymouth Rocks 2.00 3.00 5.00 

Houdans 2.00 2.75 4.00 

Wyandottes 1.75 2.50 3.00 

Red Caps 2.00 2.75 4.00 

Black Minorcas 1.75 2.50 3.00 

White Minorcas 2.00 3.00 5.00 

Single Comb Brown Leghorns. 1.75 2.50 4.00 

Single Comb White Leghorns. 1.75 2.50 4.00 

Rose Comb Brown Leghorns .. 1.75 2.50 4.00 

Rose Comb White Leghorns .. 1.75 2.50 4.00 

Buff Leghorns 1 .75 2.50 4.00 

Blue Andalusians 2.00 3.00 5.00 

Silver Spangled Hamburgs 1.75 2.50 4.00 

Cornish Indian Games. .~ 2.00 3.00 5.00 

B. B. Red Games 2.00 3.00 5.00 

White Crested Black Polish. . . 2.00 3.00 5.00 

Golden Sebright Bantams 2.00 2.75 4.00 


After the first of June these prices decline from ^ to |, and 
most breeders allow their pens to become disorganized after 
about the first of July. Prices are usually higher in New York 
and New England than elsewhere, at least from quotations re- 
ceived at this office we may justly conclude this to be the case. 

The percentage of eggs that will hatch is very uncertain, and 
persons who order sittings of high priced eggs need not expect 
every egg to hatch because it is a high priced one. There are 
various causes lead'ig to disappointment — such as, the egg may 
not be thoroughly fertilized, it may have been injured in trans- 
portation; it may be damaged after being received by persons 
whose curiosity will prompt them to handle them, and fre- 
quently to shake them. An egg intended for hatching should 
never be shaken under any circumstances. Care must also be 
observed that no grease or oil comes in contact with them, as it 
proves uniformly fatal. Again, there is the greatest variation 
in the hatching power of different hens. At the Experiment 
Station we have noticed that some hens would hatch thirteen 
chicks out'of, thirteen eggs, while other hens sitting upon eggs 
taken from the same basket, laid upon the same day, and 
handled in all points just as the other sittings, would not hatch 
more than six to eight chicks o*ut of thirteen eggs. It is difficult 
to explain, but such are the facts. 

The regular fancier of poultry is not disappointed if he looses 
40% of the eggs he purchases. But the amateur is liable to 
feel that he has been misled or deceived when he fails to get a 
full hatch, even though all experience indicates that the eggs 
may be handled with every possible precaution and still as 
much as 40% of them fail to hatch. It is unfair, therefore, to 
the breeder to expect all of his high priced eggs to hatch. They 
will very rarely do so, especially if transported several hun- 
dred miles, or if subjected to serious jarring during transporta- 
tion. This has led many breeders of high classed poultry to re- 
fuse absolutely to sell any eggs for hatching purposes. The 
man who purchases eggs for hatching, must take the risks. 

It must not be expected either that every egg produced by 
high scoring parents will hatch prize-winning birds. Even 


with the most careful handling, many birds will be unsuited 
for exhibition purposes. A regular poultryman, who under- 
stands the difficulties, does not expect to secure more than one 
bird scoring 95 in one hundred. A bird which by careful scor- 
ing would reach 98, would be worth several hundred dollars. 
Birds scoring below 90 are very numerous; from 90 to 92, their 
number is greatly diminished ; from 92 to 94, quite scarce; and 
from 94 to 96, quite rare; above 96, extremely difficult to secure. 


One of the worst pests that the poultryman has to contend 
with, is lice; which are particularly aggressive to their assaults 
upon chickens during the warmer months. 

They are provided with a mouth that enables them to bite 
the chicken, but do not suck their blood; and where they are 
numerous, they frequently exhaust the energies and damage 
the health of the fowl, causing more loss than almost any dis- 
ease that fowls are subject to. Frequently a hen that appears 
to be sick, and is standing around stupid and apparently ill, 
will, upon examination, be found to have nothing more serious 
the matter with her than that she is infested with lice, which 
are exhausting her on account of their immense numbers. 

There are a number of varieties, all of them very small, rang- 
ing in size from the one-hundredth to the one-sixth of an inch 
in length. There bodies are divided into three sections, or 
parts; the head is very large and flat ; the thorax or second 
segment, is roundish and considerably smaller than the head ; 
the abdomen, or posterior segment is long, oval and plump. 
They vary in color, being brown, grayish or yellowish. 

They keep up a constant irritation by annoying the fowl day 
and night, and preventing rest or sleep. A fowl infested with 
lice in large quantities, will not produce eggs ; nor is it very 
good for food, as its condition is likely to be poor. The lice 
render a bird absolutely worthless. They find favorable places 
for'growth in dark, damp poultry houses ; and will always be 
found on poultry that does not have ample provisions for dust- 


ing itself or wallowing in fresh earth. In a pen of chickens the- 
lice will frequently congregate in greatest numbers upon parti- 
cular fowls that may Le in poor condition, and which have dry,, 
scurfy skins. 

Fowls infested with lice may be noticed to be uneasy and 
restless, and constantly pecking at different parts of the body 
and shaking themselves. They also have an inclination to dust 
themselves. An examintion of the chicken for lice is best 
made by spreading apart the feathers about the head and neck,, 
and beneath the wings. The lice may also be found in the 
nests, on the perches, and in cracks and out of the way places 
about the chicken house. 

Chickens will very largely free themselves from lice, if pro- 
vided with a dust bath ; especially if insect powder, or a small 
quantity of flowers of sulphur be added to the dust. Care,, 
however, should be observed not to put too much sulphur in 
the dust bath, as it sometimes has a powerful effect upon the- 
chicken. A very excellent means for destroying lice is well 
leached wood ashes, or fine coal ash dust. Chickens that have 
facilities lor dusting themselves in this manner, are rarely seri- 
ously troubled with lice. 

Where lice take possession of a chicken house, as they near- 
ly always will, it is necessary to thoroughly cleanse the build- 
ing; and the perches, dropping boards, and sides should be 
thoroughly cleansed with crude petroleum, or with kerosene 
emulsion ; alter which the building may be thoroughly white- 
washed. The perches should be cleansed every week and 
sprayed with crude petroleum or .kerosene emulsion ; and. the 
supports for the perches, where they hang against the sides of 
the house, should be thoroughly greased with crude vaseline,, 
with soft axle grease, or some other impassable material for the 

Fowls treated in the manner indicated, and the poultry 
houses white-washed two or three times a year, will not be seri- 
ously affected with lice. 



These pests are frequently called lice, and are exceedingly 
annoying to all kinds of poultry. The common poultry mite is 
about 1-32 of an inch long, and about 1-70 of an inch broad. It 
lias eight legs, and each foot has a claw. It is yellowish or 
brownish color except when full of blood when it becomes dark 
brown or dull red. It is one of the most destructive pests to 
poultry, and affects all varieties of domestic fowls, not confining 
itself to birds alone however, but will pass onto the bodies of 
animals, such as dogs, cats, cattle, horses, and sometimes peo- 
ple. It does its work at night, and retires at the approach of 
day to some dark or secluded spot. In the case of (thickens, 
it will leave, the fowl, and spend the day beneath t'le nests, in 
the cracks of the floor or walls or under the perches. 

This parasite preys upon its victims by sucking the blood, 
and is especially destructive to young chickens, turkeys, and 
sitting hens. Many chickens that are not. properly looked 
after, die from its attacks; and the owners wonder what is the 
matter with his chickens. They frequently become so annoy- 
ing to a sitting hen that she leaves the nest before time for the 
eggs to hatch ; or in her agony and effort to escape from their 
attacks, she breaks the eggs upon which she is sitting. 

The same remedies mentioned for the lice are also applicable 
for the mites, so far as the sprays and white washing is con- 
cerned. A Carbolic Acid solution, 1 to 20, is also recommended 
as an excellent spray for treating the chicken houses, perches, 
and nest boxes. Nearly all parasitic pests for chickens can be 
gotten lid of, or sufficiently reduced in their activity, by keep- 
ing the chicken houses and perches thoroughly cleaned and 
well sprayed with crude petroleum. However, care should be 
observed not to go about the building with a lantern, or any 
other means of igniting it ; and where kerosene emulsion is 
used, care should be observed to permit the buildings to dry 
out after spraying with it, as other dangers to the poultry may 
arise from having their quarters too damp. 

A parasite that destroys more chickens than any other, or 


perhaps than all others combined, is the gape worm ; common- 
ly called gapes. The gape worm is of a reddish color, and about 
4 or f of an inch long for the female ; the male is about one-fifth 
•of an inch long, and is constantly attached to the female. This 
peculiar union causes the gape worm to be sometimes described 
^s a branch worm. The head of the worm is fiat, and arranged 
for sucking. 

The worms attach themselves to the linings of the wind pipe 
between the mouth and the bronchial tubes. Three or four of 
them is enough to destroy a young chick, but a larger number 
is necessary to destroy an adult. 

The worms coughed up are eaten by other birds and in this 
way they become infected. By experiment, it is found that a 
•bird fed upon worms containing eggs, will develop gapes within 
two or three weeks. Another way of spreading the disease, is 
through the agency of earth worms. The eggs of the gape 
worms cling to the earth worms and in this way are eaten by 
the chickens, which in turn become diseased. 

No one can mistake a case of gapes. The afflicted fowl has 
difficulty in breathing. It opens its mouth frequently and gasps 
for breath. There is some coughing accompanied by the ex- 
pulsion of frothy slime. Death results from suffocation in some 
cases, and in other cases from exhaustion and secondary dis- 

When the disease appears in a Hock, the afflicted fowls should 
at once be removed, in order to prevent the distribution of the 

A chicken affected with the gapes can be relieved bv a feather 
which has been stripped of its barbs except a small portion at 
the point. The point should be broken and turned back, dipped 
in vaseline and then cautiously introduced into the wind-pipe 
of the chicken. A few drops of spirits of turpentine or carbolic 
acid mixed with the lard or vaseline will be found advantageous 
in causing the worms to relinquish their hold when the feather 
•comes in contact with them. After the feather is introduced 
into the wind-pipe, it should be gradually withdrawn, and 
turned between the thumb and finger while being drawn out. 


If the operation is carefully performed, the worms will all be- 
drawn out upon the feather. One treatment will generally 
cure the chicken ; sometimes, however, it is necessary to treat 
a second time. The feather cannot be used on a chicken 
unless it is dipped in hot water to free it of the worms clinging 
to it. Where a number of chickens are to be treateJ,. they may 
be put into a box over which a sheet of muslin is spread, and 
lime sifted through the muslin top, the fowls being obliged to 
inhale the dust. The method is somewhat dangerous- to the 
fowl, and results are not always satisfactory. Chopred onions- 
and garlic mixed with the food, is also considered good. If the 
worms once get into the wind-pipe, there is no way of getting 
rid of the disease except to remove them, which must be done 
either by mechanical means, such as the feather or a looped 
horse hair, or by causing the chicken to sneeze so violently 
that it will throw them out of the wind-pipe. 

Watering troughs and feeding places should be thoroughly 
disinfected with copperas solution (1 pound of copperas to two 
gallons of water) ; and the bodies oi' dead fowls should be 
burned, or buried deeply at a distance from the barn yard.. 


When it breaks out in a liock it is a very serious matter, and 
the owner is likely to find it very difficult to control. The 
symptoms are : The fowls becomes diowsy and dumpish in ap- 
pearance and looks sleepy; the comb usually becomes pale uc 
black ; there is a diarrhea with a greenish-yellow discharge. 
Whenever it breaks out in a flock the well birds shouid not be 
permitted to come in contact with the sick ones. The roosts 
and runs of the fowls should be thoroughly disinfected and the 
fowls should be kept well nourished and in as good condition 
as possible. All dead birds should be promptly Luriei or 
The following prescription is said to be beneficial : 
1 oz. of sulphuric acid ; 1^ lbs. copperas (sulphate of iron); 
dissolve the copperas in 2 gallons of rain water; then add the 


acid and stir well before using. Keep it covered and in a cool 
place and add 1 pint of the liquid to every gallon of drinking 
water furnished the fowls. This acts as a tonic. 
The next most troublesome disease is perhaps the 


This is a contagious disease which may assume a very 
malignant iorm where the chickens are kept in dirty houses, or 
where the hens are allowed to become filthy. It attacks the 
throat, mouth, tongue, head and eyes. Usually the first indi- 
cation of it is a catarrhal condition indicated by a watery dis- 
charge from one or both eyes and from the nostrils. It may 
also appear as a swelling on the head, or as a yellow splotch on 
the tongue, sides of the mouth, or in the throat. Chickens af- 
fected by it can be readily detected in the flock at night by 
their difficult breathing and the noise they make when they 
try to clean their throats and nostrils. We are confident that 
the best way to deal with it is to maintain perfect cleanliness 
in the chicken houses and grounds, and see that the chickens 
are well nourished and kept in vigorous health. If taken in 
time, about S out ot 10 can be cured by dousing their heads, 
mouths and nostrils with crude petroleum, containing about 2 
drachms of spirits of turpentine to the pint. This may readily 
be applied by a spring oil can, such as is used for oiling 
machinery. The chickens should be well fed, isolated and 
kept in warm quarters during the treatment which will require 
several days, and in some cases, perhaps weeks. 

One of the best remedies that we have lound, so far, is the 
following: Hydrogen dioxide diluted one-half by adding water. 
This is applied to the throat, nostrils and eyes by means of a 
spray or by a douche such as is used in medical practice for 
treating catarrhal troubles. The remedy and sprayer or douche 
can be had at the drug stores. This remedy rapidly dissolves 
the diseased tissue, removes it from the surface and kills the 
germs. The douche, if properly held to the slit in the roof of 
the mouth, will at one application wash out both the nostrils 
and the eyes. 

The nostrils and eyes may also be sprayed, and as it thorough- 



ly destroys the germs of the disease, the chickens rapidly re- 
cover. Where the tongue is badly covered with the diseased 
membrane, it is well to remove it as gently as possible by 
means of a swab. The surface should then be sprayed until it 
is cleared of diseased membrane. The portion that is diseased 
■may then be dusted with fine boric acid powder, or can be al- 
lowed to heal without further treatment. If the latter course is 
adopted, it is better to grease the surface with a little vaseline 
•or lard. 

When it develops in the eye, the cheesy matter which forms 
under the eye lashes should be pressed out and the space in- 
side washed out as well as possible. Unless the disease has 
taken too violent hold of the bird, three or four treatments in 
this manner will usually bring it around in pretty good shape. 
If it develops in common chickens, however, it is best to take 
■off their heads at once, as any cure yet discovered requires 
more time and expense than the chickens are worth. Care 
should be taken to prevent the disease spreading, and whenever 
'it makes its appearance in the flock the owner will find it nec- 
essary at once to adopt energetic measures, or it is liable to 
•seriously affect the flock. 

One of the best preventives of disease among chickens is to 
"keep the poultry house and coops clean, dry and well white- 
washed, and not allow the fowls to roost in a draught. If this 
precaution is followed, with abundant good sound healthy food 
and exercise, little trouble may be expected from ordinary 
poultry diseases. 

There are numerous minor diseases which seldom require 
much attention. It is an excellent idea to paint the perches 
and spray the sides of the chicken houses with crude petroleum 
in order to prevent lice harboring about the roosts. Care 
should also be taken to have ample facilities for the chickens to 
dust themselves by wallowing in coal ashes or leached wood 
ashes or even ordinary road dust with a little lime added. This 
has a great tendency to prevent the lice from multiplying on 
the fowls. Very frequently when a fowl appears to be sick, if 
it be examined with care, nothing more serious will be found 


the matter with it than it is infested with lice. It is a good idea 
where lice get started in a flock and become a serious pest, to 
put the chickens in a box painted with some of the liquid lice 
destroyers. A chicken cooped up with these preparations for 
a few hours, will be entirely freed from pests. 


As a means of increasing a useful knowledge of the poultry 
business, we recommend that every farmer take at least one 
poultry paper for the benefit of himself and family. They are 
published at extremely low rates, and afford, during the course 
of the year, an immense amount of valuable information for 
those raising poultry. If poultry papers be placed within 
reach of members of the family, it is extremely probable that 
that one or more members of nearly every farmer's family will 
become interested in this great business, which may be made 
such a valuable adjunct to general fanning. 

I append herewith a list of most of the poultry papers pub- 
lished in this country, for which I am indebted to' the Septem- 
ber number (189fi) of the "Reliable Poultry Journal," one of 
the greatest poultry papers published in America. From this 
it will be seen that some of the largest poultry papers published 
in the country can be had at as low as 25 and 50 cents a year 
for the monthly papers, and at proportionate rates for papers 
published more frequently. If any poultry journal should have 
been everlooked in this list it is wholly accidental on our part. 

AMERICAN FANCIER, published by Rodgers & Dreven- 
stedt, Newburg, N. Y. ; weekly; $1.50 per year ; 16 pages, 
14xl0| inches. 

AMERICAN POULTRY JOURNAL, published by Morgan 
Bates & Co., Chicago, 111., monthly ; 50c per year ; 32 pages and 
cover, 12x9 inches. 

ence C. DePuy, Syracuse, N. Y.; monthly; 25c per year ; 28 
pages, 9|xl2 inches. ■•• , 

BARKS AND CACKCES. Dubliihed bv J. P. Lucas & Co., 


Topeka, Kan.; monthly; 50c per year; 16 pages and cover,. 
12x9 inches. 

W. Parish & Co., San Diego, pal. ; monthly ; 50c per year; 16 
to 24 pages, 9x12 inches. 

published by Goodwin & Thomas, Los Angeles, Cal. ; monthly; 
$1 per year ; 32 pages and cover, llxS£ inches. 

Donovan, Toronto, Canada ; monthly; $1 per year; 24 pages,. 
9x12 inches. 

Herr, Denver, Colo.; monthly; 50c per year; 24 pages, 9x12. 

DER GEFLUEGEL-ZUECHTER, published by Henry K 
Voight, Wausau, Wis. ; monthly; 50c per year ; 12 pages and. 
cover, 9x12 inches. 

FANCIERS' REVIEW, published by J. W. Darrow, Chat- 
ham, N. Y. ; monthly ; 50c per year; 16 pages, 10^x14 inches. 

FEATHERED REALM, published by the Enterprise Pub- 
lishing Co., Cambridgeboro, Pa. ; monthly; 50c per year; 20 
pages and cover, S^xll inches. 

FANCIERS' MONTHLY, published by Charles R. Harker. 
San Jose, Cal. ; monthly ; $1 per year ; 32 to 40 pages, 6x9 inches. 

FEATHER, published by George E. Howard & Co., Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; monthly; 50c yer year; 42 pages and cover, 
6^x9^ inches. 

FARM-POULTRY, published by I. S. Johnson & Co., Bos- 
ton, Mass. ; semi-monthly; $1 per year; 16 pages and cover,. 
14x11 inches. 

GAME FANCIERS' JOURNAL, published by George S. 
Barnes, Battle Creek, Mich. ; monthly ; 50c per year ; 12 pages,. 
8^x12 inches. 

GAME FOWL MONTHLY, published by C. L. Francisco. 
Sayre, Pa.; monthly ; $1 per year ; 40 pages, 6x10 inches, 


HEN MAN, published by Petaluma Printing Co. ; Petaluma 
Cal.; monthly; 50c per year; 12 to 20 pages, 9x12. 

INTERSTATE POULTRYMAN, published by Interstate 
Publishing Co.; Tiffin, O.; monthly; 50c per year; 16 pages, 
14|xll inches. 

INLAND POULTRY, published by O. L. Magill, Indiana- 
polis, Ind. ; monthly ; 25c per year; 32 pages and cover, 6-^x9 

INTERNATIONAL FANCIER, published by International 
Fancier Co. ; Franklin, Ky. ; monthly ; 25c per year ; 16 pages, 
11x9 inches. 

IOWA STATE POULTRY JOURNAL, published by Pierce 
■& Kroeger, Ottumwa, Iowa ; monthly ; 50c per year ; 24 pages 
9xlH inches. 

MICHIGAN FANCIER, published by Prest & Purvis, 
Detroit, Mich.; monthly; 50c per year; 12 pages and cover, 11x9 

MICHIGAN POULTRY BREEDER, published by George 
S. Barnes, Battle Creek, Mich. ; monthly; 50c per year 20 pages 
8^x12 inches. 

Austin, Johnson City, Tenn. ; monthly; 50 cents per year 24 

pages and cover, 6x9 inches. 

Harrington, & Co., Kansas City, Mo. ; monthly ; 50c per year ; 
24 pages and cover, 11^x9 inches. 


Stowell & Kent, Auburn, Neb. : monthly ; 50c per year 20 pages, 
9x12 inches. 

NEW ENGLAND FANCIER, published by William H. 
Hamilton, Danielson, Conn. : monthly ; 50c per year; 24 pages, 
8x10 inches. 

OHIO POULTRY JOURNAL, published by Robert A. 


Braden, Dayton, Ohio; monthly; 6">c per year; 2S pages and 
cover, 11^x9 inches. 

POULTRY CHUM, published by F. M. Munger, DeKalb, 111.; 
monthly ; 25c per year ; 12 pages, 9x12 inches. 

POULTRY FARM, published by W. C. Adkins, Morton. 
Kansas; monthly; 25c per year; 16 pages and cover, l(HxS 

POULTRY, GARDEN AND FRUITS, published by Poultry, 
Garden and Fruits Publishing Co., Marilla, N. Y. ; monthly ; 
50c per year; 12 pages and cover, 1Hx9£ inches. 

POULTRY GRAPHIC, published by J. F. Schureman, Jr., 
Geneseo, 111.; monthly; 50c per year; 16 pages and cover, 
11x7^ inches. 

POULTRY HERALD, published by Webb Publishing Co., 
St. Paul, Minn.; monthly; 50c per year; 20 pages, 10^x114 

POULTRY KEEPER, published by Poultry Keeper Co., 
Parkersburg, Pa.; monthly; 50c per year ; 16 pages, 11x15 

POULTRY MONTHLY, published by Ferris Publishing Co., 
Albany N. Y. ; monthly; $1 per year; 4S pages and cover, 
11^x9^ inches. 

POULTRY MESSENGER, published by the Messenger Co., 
Aurelia, Iowa ; monthly ; 25c per year; 11 pages lHxS^ inches. 

POULTRY NEWS, published by the Mickle Co., Lincoln, 
Neb. ; monthly ; 25c per year ; 61 pages, 6x9 inches. 

POULTRY TOPICS, published by Poultry Topics Publish- 
ing Co., Warsaw, Mo. ; monthly ; 25c per year ; 21 to 10 pages, 
9x12 inches. 

POULTRY TRIBUNE, published by R. R. Fisher, Free- 
port, 111 ; monthly; 50c per year; 28 to 36 pages, 9x12 inches. 

POULTRY WORLD, published by H. H. Stoddard, Kearney 
Neb. ; monthly ; $1 per year ; 32 pages, 1Hx9 inches. 

POULTRYDOM, published by Poultrydom Publishing Co., 


Henry, 111.; monthly ; 5Cc per year; 16 pages and cover, ll^xS-^ 

PRACTICAL POULTRYMAN, publis-he 1 by F. C. Branday, 
Whitney's Point, N. Y. ; monthly; 50c per year; 16 pages,. 
8^xll-| inches. 

RELIABLE POULTRY JOURNAL, published by Reliable 
Poultry Journal- Co., Quincy, 111.; monthly: 50j per year ; 
64 to 100 pages and cover, 1 1-^x9 inches. 

SOUTHERN FANCIER, published by George M. Downs,. 
Atlanta, Ga.; monthly ; 50c per year ; 24 pages, 9x12 inches. 

SOUTHERN POULTRYMAN, published by A. S. Ellison, 
High Point, N C. ; monthly ; 50c per year ; 12 pages and cover, 
11x9 inches. 

SOUTHERN PIT GAMES, published by Jeff Fleming, 
Blakely, Ga. ; monihly ; 50c per year ; 8 pages, 11^x15^ inches. 

SOUTHERN COOKERS' JOURNAL, published by Savage 
Bros., Belton, Texas ; monthly ; $1 per year ; 12. pages,. 11^x8^ 

TAR HEEL POULTRYMAN, published by R. L. Simons, 
Shelby, N. C. ; monthly ; 25c per year; 8 pages, 13x10 inches. 

TEXAS POULTRY INDUSTRY, published by Savage Bros., 
Belton, Texas ; monthly ; 50c per year ; 24 pages, 11^x8^ inches. 

lished by Western Garden Publishing Co., Des Moines, Iowa; 
monthly ; 50c per year ; 82 pages. SxKH inches. 

WESTERN POULTRY BREEDER, published by Owen & 
Co., Topeka, Kan.; monihly; 25c per year; 20 pages, 8x11 

Richards, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; monthly ; 50c per year ; 28 to 36 
pages, 9x11 inches. 

Matthewf , Seattle, Wash. ; mouthy; 50c per year; 12 pages, 
11x15 inches. 


The capital necessary to engage in the poultry business is 
dependent upon the character of poultry that is used and the 
■manner in which it is conducted. In the first place, we believe 
that it is most profitable upon the farm for the fanner to keep 
one or two thoroughbred varieties ; preferably one. Of course 
the fancier will keep as many breeds as he may find to his ad- 
vantage. But chickens of one breed upon the farm can be more 
economically managed than a variety of breeds; and if the 
farmer keeps but one breed,, he can frequently sell his eggs by 
the sitting, which is more profitable than to sell them for con- 
sumption. He will, of course, select his stock according to the 
trade he proposes to meet. 

It is desirable upon the farm to have the poultry buildings as 
cheap as possible, but they should be so constructed that they 
can be readily cleaned, can be easily sprayed or whitewashed 
inside to free them of insects, and they should be tight enough 
to prevent draughts. There is nothing more dangerous to 
chickens than a building so open that draughts will blow 
through the cracks and cause the chickens to take cold which is 
very apt to run into roup. A house that is not constructed 
properly, is worse than no buildings at all. A chicken will be 
healthier out on the fence or in a tree, i]ian it will in a draughty 
house. It may get its comb or feet frost-bitten under those 
conditions, and it may occasionally freeze to death ; but even 
that is better than the roup in the fioek. 

A building for twenty-five hens can be constructed for as low 
a price a^ $25, and from that up. Persons wishing plans for 
cheap houses can secure them by sending 25 cents to the 
''Fanciers' Review," Chatham, N. Y., or '"The Poultry Archi- 
tect,' 1 by H. A. Kuhns, Atlanta, Ga. The publishers will send 
a pamphlet giving a description of a large number of cheap 
houses, together with bill of material and necessary drawings. 


If it is proposed to go into the poultry business extensively 
and hatch early chickens to be developed and sold as broilers,, 
it is necessary to have a room for incubators, large and proper- 
ly heated brooder houses, with ample runs, scratching sheds- 
" and other improvements; all of which cost considerable money,, 
and may involve investment of several thousand dollars of 

The poultryman should arrange his business so as to have 
something always on hand to sell at the time when it is scarc- 
est and commands the best prices. Much depends upon prop- 
erly housing and feeding his chickens so that they will begin 
laying, and produce as many e<:gs as possible between the first 
of November and the first of April, during the season of the 
year when eggs command, the highest prices. His incubators 
should be started in February with the purpose of having early- 
broilers in the market, as well as early maturing thoroughbred 
chickens for sale a little later. The broilers begin to come into- 
demand about the first of May, and by this time the demanp 
for single sittings of eggs is beginning to decline. He may dis- 
pose of his early broilers, and along in August the trade begins 
to open for the thoroughbred young chickens, and this may be 
continued lor the rest of the season, until the egg trade again 
opens. It must be understood, of course, that there is more or 
less egg trade extending throughout the year. A farmer w Im- 
properly manages his poultry, may expect a larger percentage- 
of returns from the capital invested, than from almost any 
business upon the farm. 

A few chickens on a large farm requires little or no at- 
tention, but if it is proposed to keep several hundred chickens 
they will require his careful and continued attention. We are 
disposed to think that the best plan for the farmer is probably 
to colonize his chickens in groups of about 25 and place the 
colonies at a considerable distance from one another, allowing 
each colony as large a run as practicable. The fancier, of 
course, understands how to group his chickens in pens of lim- 
ited area. And the farmer will gradually learn the art of keep- 
ing a large number of chickens upon small area, but it requires 



so much care and attention to do this, that we advise fanners 
not to attempt it until they have had experience in the poultry 

Suppose our farmer begins by an investment of $25 in poul- 
try, and from $25 to $40 in poultry buildings, feeds his poultry 
liberally, sees that they are well cared for, aud keeps a careful 
account of expenses and sales, and we are confident that h& 
will be so much astonished and delighted at the results, that 
ever afterward he will be an enthusiastic poultry-man..